One of the many challenges that wildlife biologists and managers face is to know how many animals occur in a given area, how they distribute themselves in space and how this distribution changes with seasons. Estimating ungulate population size and structure and their spatial distribution is traditionally done using road or aerial surveys. However, when one is also interested in how these 3 parameters vary in time, at the seasonal or annual scales for instance, these survey methods quickly become extremely costly and logistically unpractical, especially over an area as large as the entire Etosha National Park (~23 000 km2)!

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